1. Health

Fibromyalgia

Highlights

Causes

  • Using brain scans on patients with fibromyalgia, researchers have discovered an abnormal increase in blood flow (called "brain perfusion") in an area of the brain that discriminates the intensity of pain, and a decrease in blood flow in areas thought to be involved in the emotional response to pain. These abnormalities were unrelated to the patients' depression and anxiety levels, reinforcing the idea that fibromyalgia is a real disorder, rather than a result of depression.
  • Patients with fibromyalgia seem to be more sensitive to sounds than those without the condition. This increased sensitivity may be due to an abnormality in sensory processing by the central nervous system.

Prognosis

  • People with fibromyalgia experience greater psychological distress and a greater impact on quality of life than those with other conditions, such as chronic low back pain.

Treatment

  • The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has approved the drug duloxetine (Cymbalta) for treating fibromyalgia. In studies, duloxetine reduced fibromyalgia pain by more than 30%.

Lifestyle

  • Exercising in a warm swimming pool is a cost-effective therapy that improves quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.
  • Waon therapy -- a type of treatment in which patients first sit in a dry sauna and then are placed in a warm room and wrapped in blankets -- may help reduce pain in fibromyalgia patients, according to one small study.

Medications

  • The anti-epileptic drug pregabalin is effective at improving pain and sleep in three different doses (300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg), and the drug is well tolerated by fibromyalgia patients.
  • A synthetic drug derived from marijuana may prove an effective addition to fibromyalgia treatment. In one study, nabilone (Cesamet), which is typically used to treat severe nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients, significantly relieved fibromyalgia pain compared to placebo.

Introduction

Fibromyalgia is a syndrome of unknown causes that results in lasting, sometimes debilitating, muscle pain and fatigue. Fibromyalgia is also known as fibrositis or fibromyositis.

General Description of Fibromyalgia Symptoms

Pain. The primary symptom of fibromyalgia is pain. The pain can be in one place or all over the body. The exact locations of the pain are called tender points. Fibromyalgia pain is often described as:

  • Tender point pain that occurs in local areas, usually in the neck and shoulders. The pain then spreads out from these areas. The actual pain starts at the muscles. The joints are not affected. There are no lumps or nodes associated with these pain points, and no signs of inflammation (swelling). People diagnosed with fibromyalgia feel pain in at least 11 of 18 specific tender points.
  • Widespread stiffness, burning, and aching pain. The pain also "radiates," or spreads, to nearby areas. Most patients report feeling some pain all the time. Many describe it as "exhausting." The pain can vary depending on the time of day, changes in the weather, physical activity, and the presence of stressful situations. The pain is often more intense after sleep is disturbed.

Fatigue and Sleep Disturbances. Another major fibromyalgia complaint is fatigue. Some patients report that their fatigue is more distressing than their pain. Sleep disturbances, particularly restless legs syndrome, are also very common. Fatigue and sleep disturbances are almost universal in patients with fibromyalgia. Some experts believe that if these symptoms are not present, the condition may not be fibromyalgia.

Depression and Mood. Up to a third of fibromyalgia patients have depression. Disturbances in mood and concentration are also very common. These conditions often go undiagnosed.

Other Symptoms. The following symptoms may also be present:

  • Digestive problems, including irritable bowel syndrome with gas, and alternating diarrhea and constipation
  • Dizziness
  • Painful menstrual periods
  • Tension or migraine headaches
  • Tingling or numbness in the hands and feet
  • Urinary frequency caused by bladder spasms

Symptoms in Children. In general, children with fibromyalgia most often have sleep disorders and widespread pain.

Causes

In the most common type of fibromyalgia, the causes are not known. Physical injuries, emotional trauma, or viral infections such as Epstein-Barr may trigger the disorder, but no one trigger has proven to be a cause of primary fibromyalgia.

Many experts believe that fibromyalgia is not a disease, but is rather a chronic pain condition brought on by several abnormal body responses to stress. Areas in the brain that are responsible for the sensation of pain react differently in fibromyalgia patients than the same areas in healthy people.

People with fibromyalgia have been found to have decreased activity in opioid receptors in parts of the brain that affect mood and the emotional aspect of pain. This reduced response might explain why fibromyalgia patients are likely to have depression, and are less responsive to opioid painkillers, researchers say.

Chronic Sleep Disturbance

Sleep disturbances are common in fibromyalgia. Patients with the condition have a higher-than-average rate of a sleep disorder called periodic limb movement disorder (PLMD). Patients with PLMD involuntarily contract their leg muscles every 20 - 40 seconds during sleep, which may occasionally wake them up.

Some researchers believe that fibromyalgia does not lead to poor sleeping patterns, but that sleep disturbances come first. Researchers continue to investigate the link between fibromyalgia and sleep.

  • In one study, healthy volunteers reported fibromyalgia-like pain after their deep sleep had been disrupted. Disturbed sleep appears to trigger factors in the immune system that cause inflammation, pain, fatigue, and lower tolerance to pain. Patients with fibromyalgia have increased rates of cyclic alternating sleep pattern (CAP), which may produce serious sleep problems and have been strongly linked to symptom severity. Previous studies have also suggested that CAP may be related to PLMD.
  • Sleep disorders that cause breathing problems are common in women with fibromyalgia.
  • Other biological measures of troubled sleep, such as levels of the hormone melatonin (which helps regulate circadian rhythms and the sleep-wake cycle) appear to be normal in most people with fibromyalgia.

Brain Chemicals and Hormonal Abnormalities

Many abnormalities of hormonal, metabolic, and brain chemical activity have been described in studies of fibromyalgia patients. Changes appear to occur in several brain chemicals, although no regular pattern has emerged that fits most patients. Since there has been no clear cause-and-effect relationship established, it may be that fibromyalgia is a result of the effects of pain and stress on the central nervous system, which lead to changes in brain circuitry, rather than a brain disorder itself.

Serotonin. Of particular interest to researchers is serotonin, an important nervous system chemical messenger found in the brain, gut, and other areas of the body. Serotonin plays important roles in creating feelings of well-being, adjusting pain levels, and promoting deep sleep. Serotonin abnormalities have been linked to many disorders, including depression, migraines, and irritable bowel syndrome. Lower serotonin levels have also been noted in some patients with fibromyalgia.

Stress Hormones. Researchers have also found abnormalities in the hormone system known as the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal gland (HAP) axis. The HAP axis controls important functions, including sleep, stress response, and depression. Changes in the HAP axis appear to produce lower levels of the stress hormones norepinephrine and cortisol. (By contrast, levels of stress hormones in depression are higher than normal.) Lower levels of stress hormones lead to impaired responses to psychological or physical stresses. (Examples of physical stress include infection or exercise.)

Hypothalamus
The hypothalamus is a highly complex structure in the brain that regulates many important brain chemicals.
Adrenal glands

Click the icon to see an image of the adrenal glands.

Low IGF-1 Levels. Some studies have reported low levels of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) in about a third of fibromyalgia patients. IGF-1 is a hormone that promotes bone and muscle growth. Low levels of growth hormone may lead to impaired thinking, lack of energy, muscle weakness, and intolerance to cold. Studies suggest that changes in growth hormone likely stem from the hypothalamus in the brain. While researchers have not found a link between IGF-1 levels and fibromyalgia, growth hormone levels in the blood may be a marker of the disorder.

Abnormal Pain Perception and Substance P. Some studies have suggested that people with fibromyalgia may perceive pain differently than healthy people. Fibromyalgia may involve too much activity in the parts of the central nervous system that process pain (the nociceptive system). Brain scans of fibromyalgia patients have found abnormalities in pain processing centers. For example, researchers have detected up to three times the normal level of substance P (a chemical messenger associated with increased pain perception) in the cerebrospinal fluid of fibromyalgia patients.

Using brain scans, researchers have also discovered an abnormal increase in blood flow (called "brain perfusion") in an area of the brain that discriminates the intensity of pain, and a decrease in blood flow in areas thought to be involved in the emotional response to pain. These abnormalities were unrelated to the patients' depression and anxiety levels, further reinforcing the idea that fibromyalgia is a real disorder, rather than just a side effect of depression.

Some fibromyalgia patients may be oversensitive to external stimulation, and overly anxious about the sensation of pain. This increase in awareness is called generalized hypervigilance.

A conflict between sensory perception and nervous system processing might occur in people with fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia patients have been found to have greater awareness of, or less tolerance for, movement problems (such as tremor) that don't match with their expected sensory feedback. This mismatch in sensory signals might enhance the perception of pain. Fibromyalgia patients also seem to be more sensitive to sounds.

Immune Abnormalities

Fibromyalgia has symptoms that resemble those of some rheumatic illnesses, including rheumatoid arthritis and lupus (systemic lupus erythematosus). These are autoimmune diseases in which a defective immune system mistakenly attacks the body's own healthy tissue, producing inflammation and damage. The pain in fibromyalgia, however, does not appear to be due to autoimmune factors, and there is little evidence to support a role for an inflammatory response in fibromyalgia.

Psychological and Social Effects

Although not primary causes, psychological and social factors may contribute to fibromyalgia in three ways:

  • They could make individuals susceptible to fibromyalgia.
  • They may play some role in triggering the onset of the condition.
  • They may perpetuate, or be responsible for, the condition.

Studies have reported higher numbers of severe emotional and physical abuse in patients with fibromyalgia compared with the general population. Most often, the abusers are family members or partners. This suggests that post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) or chronic stress may play a strong role in the development of fibromyalgia in some patients. PTSD, an anxiety disorder, is a reaction to a specific traumatic event. Some evidence indicates that PTSD actually results in changes to the brain, possibly from long-term overexposure to stress hormones.

Muscle Abnormalities

Some research has found muscle abnormalities in fibromyalgia patients. These problems can be classified as the following:

  • Biochemical abnormalities: Fibromyalgia patients may have lower levels of the muscle-cell chemicals phosphocreatine and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Such chemicals regulate the level of calcium in muscle cells. Calcium is an important component in the muscles' ability to contract and relax. If ATP levels are low, calcium is not "pushed back" into the cells, and the muscle remains contracted.
  • Functional abnormalities: The pain and stress of the disease itself may harm muscle function.
  • Structural and blood flow abnormalities: Some researchers have seen overly thickened capillaries (tiny blood vessels) in the muscles of fibromyalgia patients. The abnormal capillaries could produce lower levels of compounds essential for muscle function, as well as reduce the flow of oxygen-rich blood to the muscles.

To date, none of these abnormalities has a clearly defined relationship with fibromyalgia.

Risk Factors

About 5 million Americans have fibromyalgia. The condition affects women more often than men.

Some evidence suggests that several factors may make people more susceptible to fibromyalgia. These risk factors include:

  • Being female
  • Coming from a very stressful culture or environment
  • Having a psychological vulnerability to stress
  • Having had difficult experiences in childhood

Women

Nine out of 10 fibromyalgia patients are women. Women may be more prone to develop fibromyalgia during menopause.

Age

The disorder usually occurs in people ages 20 - 60 years, though it can occur at any time. Some studies have noted peaks at around age 35. Others note that fibromyalgia is most common in middle-aged women. In one study, cases of fibromyalgia increased with age, and reached a frequency of more than 7% among people in their 60s and 70s.

Juvenile Primary Fibromyalgia. This type of fibromyalgia appears in adolescents, typically after age 13, with a peak incidence at age 14. It is uncommon, but studies indicate that its incidence may be increasing. Symptoms are similar to adult fibromyalgia, but outcomes may be better in young people.

Family Factors

Studies report a higher incidence of fibromyalgia among family members. It is not clear whether genetic or psychological factors, or both, are involved. Studies have found that:

  • About a third of children whose mothers have fibromyalgia also develop the disorder.
  • About two-thirds of parents who had children with fibromyalgia report some sort of chronic pain. About 10% of them have fibromyalgia.

Diagnosis

There is no obvious, objective method for diagnosing fibromyalgia. The criteria used for studying fibromyalgia are very helpful, particularly if the patient does not have an accompanying disorder, such as depression or arthritis, that could complicate the diagnosis. Failure to meet the criteria, however, does not rule out fibromyalgia. Fibromyalgia should be suspected in any person who has muscle and joint pain with no identifiable cause.

Criteria for Classifying Fibromyalgia

In 1990, the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) set the following criteria for classifying fibromyalgia:

A. Widespread pain must be present for at least 3 months. This pain must appear in all of the following locations:

  • Both sides of the body
  • Above and below the waist
  • Along the length of the spine

B. Pain in at least 11 of 18 specific areas called tender points on the body. The pain experienced when pressing on a tender point is very localized and intensely painful (not just tender). Tender points are located in the following areas:

  • The left or right side of the back of the neck, directly below the hairline
  • The left or right side of the front of the neck, above the collarbone (clavicle)
  • The left or right side of the chest, right below the collarbone
  • The left or right side of the upper back, near where the neck and shoulder join
  • The left or right side of the spine in the upper back between the shoulder blades (scapula)
  • The inside of either arm where it bends at the elbow
  • The left or right side of the lower back, right below the waist
  • Either side of the buttocks below the hip bones
  • Either kneecap

Other Factors. The ACR classification provides a guideline, but doctors will also use a patient's medical history and other symptoms to reach a diagnosis. Fibromyalgia is often diagnosed when other diseases have been excluded. Long-term symptoms that may indicate fibromyalgia include:

  • Fatigue
  • Headache
  • Morning stiffness
  • Numbness or tingling in the hands and feet
  • Sleep disturbance
Fibromyalgia
The 18 fibromyalgia tender points are located throughout the body. According to the American College of Rheumatology, a diagnosis of fibromyalgia requires widespread body pain plus localized pain in 11 of these 18 specific points.

Medical and Personal History

A doctor should always take a careful personal and family medical history, which includes a psychological profile and history of any factors that might indicate other conditions, such as:

  • Infectious diseases
  • Muscle weakness
  • Physical injuries
  • Rashes
  • Recent weight change
  • Sexual, physical, or substance or alcohol abuse

Patients should report any drugs they take, including vitamins and over-the-counter or herbal medications.

Physical Examination

Pressure on Tender Spots. Any physical examination for fibromyalgia requires that the doctor press firmly on all potential tender spots. These spots must be painful when pressed, not simply tender. In addition, for a doctor to reach a diagnosis of fibromyalgia, these tender sites should normally not show signs of inflammation (redness, swelling, or heat in the joints and soft tissue). The tender points may also change in location and sensitivity over time. A doctor may then recheck tender points that do not respond the first time in patients who have other significant symptoms.

Detection of Other Causes of Symptoms. A health care provider will also examine the nails, skin, mucus membranes, joints, spine, muscles, and bones to help rule out arthritis, thyroid disease, and other disorders.

Other Tests

No blood, urine, or other laboratory tests can definitively diagnose fibromyalgia. If such tests show abnormal results, the doctor should look for other disorders. Tests for specific diseases depend on family histories and other symptoms, and may include:

  • Blood count
  • Sedimentation rate
  • Tests of certain antibodies
  • Thyroid and liver function tests

The doctor may suggest follow-up psychological profile testing, if laboratory results do not indicate a specific disease.

Conditions with Similar Symptoms

Between 10% and 30% of all doctor's office visits are due to symptoms that resemble those of fibromyalgia, including fatigue, malaise, and widespread muscle pain. Because no laboratory test can confirm fibromyalgia, doctors will usually first test for similar conditions. A diagnosis of many of the disorders below may not always rule out fibromyalgia, because it can accompany other common conditions.

Several conditions may overlap or coexist with fibromyalgia, and have similar symptoms. It is not clear whether these conditions cause fibromyalgia, are risk factors for the disorder, have causes in common with fibromyalgia, or have no relationship at all with it.

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome. There is a significant overlap between fibromyalgia and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). As with fibromyalgia, the cause of CFS is unknown. A doctor can diagnose either disorder based only on symptoms reported by the patient. The two disorders share most of the same symptoms. They are also treated almost identically. The main differences are:

  • Pain with tender points is the primary symptom in fibromyalgia. Some patients with CFS exhibit similar tender pressure points; however, their muscle pain is less prominent.
  • Fatigue is the main symptom in CFS. It is severe, is not caused by excessive work or exercise, and is not relieved by rest or sleep.

Some doctors believe that fibromyalgia is simply an extreme type of chronic fatigue syndrome. Physical evidence, however, indicates that the two disorders are distinct, and each has its own treatments.

Myofascial Pain Syndrome. Myofascial pain syndrome can be confused with fibromyalgia and may also accompany it. Unlike fibromyalgia, myofascial pain tends to occur in trigger points, as opposed to tender points, and typically there is no widespread, generalized pain. Trigger-point pain occurs in tight muscles, and when the doctor presses on these points, the patient may experience a muscle twitch. Unlike tender points, trigger points are often small lumps, about the size of a pencil eraser.

Major Depression. The link between psychological disorders and fibromyalgia is very strong. Studies report that 50 - 70% of fibromyalgia patients have a lifetime history of depression. However, only 18 - 36% of fibromyalgia patients have major depression.

Some studies have found that people who have both psychological disorders and fibromyalgia are more likely to seek medical help, compared with patients who simply have symptoms of fibromyalgia. If this is the case, study results may be biased, finding a higher-than-actual association between depression and fibromyalgia.

Depressed feelings in people with fibromyalgia can be normal responses to the pain and fatigue caused by this syndrome. Such emotions, however, are temporary and related to the condition. They are not considered to be a depression disorder. Unlike ordinary periods of sadness, an episode of major depression can last many months.

Symptoms of major depression include the following:

  • Depressed mood every day
  • Feeling worthless or inappropriately guilty
  • Inability to concentrate or make decisions
  • Insomnia or excessive sleeping
  • Low energy every day
  • Restlessness or a sense of being slowed down
  • Significant weight gain or loss (of 10% or more of an individual's typical body weight)
  • Suicidal thoughts

If several of the above symptoms are present, and none of the physical symptoms (particularly the tender points) of fibromyalgia exist, the condition is most likely major depression.

Chronic Headache. Chronic primary headaches, such as migraines, are common in fibromyalgia patients. Some experts believe that migraine headaches and fibromyalgia may even share common defects in the systems that regulate certain chemical messengers in the brain, including serotonin and epinephrine (adrenaline). Low levels of magnesium have also been noted in patients with both fibromyalgia and migraines. Chronic migraine sufferers who do not benefit from usual therapies may also have fibromyalgia.

Migraine headache
Symptoms of a migraine attack may include heightened sensitivity to light and sound, nausea, vision problems (auras), speech difficulty, and intense pain that is mainly on one side of the head.

Multiple Chemical Sensitivity. Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a term that describes conditions in which certain chemicals cause symptoms similar to CFS or fibromyalgia. As with CFS and fibromyalgia, some experts are uncertain whether MCS is a medical problem or psychologically based condition. Because everyone is exposed to many chemicals on a daily basis, it is very difficult to determine whether chemicals are responsible for specific symptoms.

Experts have come up with criteria to help recognize MCS:

  • Symptoms can be produced by exposure to the chemical at levels lower than the person previously or usually tolerated.
  • Symptoms can be triggered by multiple substances that are chemically unrelated.
  • Symptoms involve multiple organ systems.
  • The condition is chronic.
  • The symptoms always happen with repeated exposure to a chemical. (These are often common chemicals found in popular products, such as perfumes, fabric softeners, and air fresheners.)
  • The symptoms improve when the chemical is removed.

Restless Legs Syndrome. About 15% of people with fibromyalgia have restless legs syndrome. Restless legs syndrome is an unsettling and poorly understood movement disorder that is sometimes described as a sense of unease and weariness in the lower leg that is aggravated by rest and relieved by movement.

Disorders Affected by the Sympathetic (also called Autonomic) Nervous System. Other conditions that commonly accompany fibromyalgia include:

  • Chest pain and heart palpitations
  • Mitral valve prolapse
  • Sudden drop in blood pressure

Conditions That Do Not Rule Out Fibromyalgia

Certain stress-related disorders commonly occur with fibromyalgia, and have overlapping symptoms. In fact, some experts believe these disorders so often interact that they may all be part of one general condition.

  • Chemicals and environmental toxins -- exposure to various chemicals and environmental toxins such as solvents, pesticides, or heavy metals (cadmium, mercury, or lead) can cause fatigue, chronic pain, and other symptoms of fibromyalgia.
  • Irritable bowel syndrome
  • Osteoarthritis -- a common form of arthritis that can coexist with fibromyalgia. The two conditions may be confused, particularly in elderly people. However, osteoarthritis causes joint pain, not widespread or generalized pain.
Osteoarthritis
Osteoarthritis is a chronic disease of the joint cartilage and bone. It is often thought to result from "wear and tear" on a joint, although there are other causes, such as congenital defects, trauma, and metabolic disorders. Joints appear larger, are stiff and painful, and usually feel worse the more they are used throughout the day.
  • Temporomandibular joint disorders

Some tests may be positive for one or more of these diseases. However, fibromyalgia should not be ruled out if the results are uncertain, these conditions have already been treated successfully, or the patient meets the criteria for fibromyalgia.

Multiple sclerosis. This condition may have symptoms similar to those of fibromyalgia. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans often detect patches of tissue in the brain that confirm multiple sclerosis (MS). MRI findings combined with other tests and clinical findings usually make this diagnosis fairly certain. However, some patients may have symptoms that suggest MS, but tests cannot confirm the diagnosis. Some of these patients may have symptoms similar to those of fibromyalgia.

Multiple sclerosis

Click the icon to see an image of multiple sclerosis.

Autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythrematosis, and Sjogren syndrome are usually easy to diagnose, but they may develop slowly and be difficult to diagnose at first. Even if a doctor determines that a patient is most likely to have fibromyalgia, the doctor should keep track of any changes in symptoms over time in case the patient actually has one of these other illnesses.

Lyme Disease. Lyme disease is a bacterial disease transmitted by ticks. Health care providers can usually diagnose early Lyme disease correctly, but a delayed response or recurrence of this disorder may be mistaken for fibromyalgia. Some experts believe that 15 - 50% of patients referred to clinics for Lyme disease actually have fibromyalgia. Late Lyme disease can usually (but not always) be ruled out using blood tests that identify the organism that causes this disease. If fibromyalgia patients are incorrectly diagnosed and treated for Lyme disease with prolonged courses of antibiotics, the drugs may have serious side effects.

Drugs and Alcohol. Fatigue is a side effect of many prescription and over-the-counter medications, such as antihistamines. Constant fatigue is also a symptom of drug and alcohol dependency or abuse. Health care providers should consider medications as a possible cause of fatigue if an individual has recently started, stopped, or changed medications. Withdrawal from caffeine can produce depression, fatigue, and headache.

Polymyalgia Rheumatica. Polymyalgia rheumatica is a condition that causes pain and stiffness. It generally occurs in older women. Tender points are also present with this disorder, although they almost always occur in the hip and shoulder area. Morning stiffness is common, and patients may also experience fever, weight loss, and fatigue. A higher-than-normal erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) can help diagnose polymyalgia rheumatica. Elevated ESR, however, also occurs with other conditions. Polymyalgia rheumatica usually responds dramatically to low doses of a steroid medication such as prednisone. Because polymyalgia rheumatica is sometimes associated with a rare condition called temporal arteritis, which may cause blindness if not treated, an accurate diagnosis is important.

Prognosis

Fibromyalgia can be mild or disabling, and the emotional toll can be substantial. People with fibromyalgia experience greater psychological distress and a greater impact on quality of life than those with other conditions, such as chronic low back pain. About half of all patients have difficulty with routine daily activities, or are unable to perform them. An estimated 30 - 40% of patients have had to quit work or change jobs. Patients with either CFS or fibromyalgia are more likely to lose jobs, possessions, and support from friends and family than are people suffering from other conditions that cause fatigue.

Risk of Negative Behaviors

The pain, emotional consequences, or sleep disturbances that come with fibromyalgia may lead to self-medication and overuse of sleeping pills, alcohol, drugs, or caffeine.

Long-term Outlook

Outlook in Adults. Some studies show that fibromyalgia symptoms remain stable over the long term, while others report a better outlook, with 25 - 35% of patients reporting improvement in pain symptoms over time. Studies suggest that regular exercise improves the outlook. Those with a significant life crisis, or who are on disability, have a poorer outcome, as determined by improvements in the patients' ability to work, their own feelings about their condition, pain sensation, and levels of disturbed sleep, fatigue, and depression. Although the disease is lifelong, it does not get worse and is not fatal.

Outlook in Children. Children with fibromyalgia tend to have a better outlook than adults with the disorder. Several studies have reported that more than half of children with fibromyalgia recover in 2 - 3 years.

Treatment

Fibromyalgia is a mysterious condition. Its causes are still largely unknown, as is how it inflicts damage. No strong evidence indicates that any single treatment (or combination of treatments) has any significant effect for most patients.

However, in 2007 the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved pregabalin (Lyrica) as the first drug treatment for fibromyalgia after a study showed the medicine reduced fibromyalgia pain in 63% of patients. A year later, the FDA approved the drug duloxetine (Cymbalta) for fibromyalgia. Cymbalta has been shown to reduce fibromyalgia pain by more than 30%.

Many patients with fibromyalgia are treated first with medication; however, the American Pain Society Fibromyalgia Panel recommends a combined approach using cognitive-behavioral therapy, education, medication, and exercise. Treatment usually involves not only relieving symptoms, but also changing a patient's attitude about the disease. Treatment should also teach patients behaviors that help them cope.

Treatments usually involve trial and error:

  • Patients may start with physical therapy, exercise, stress reduction techniques, and cognitive-behavioral therapy.
  • If these methods fail to improve symptoms, an antidepressant or muscle relaxant may be added to the treatment. Doctors usually prescribe these drugs because they may improve pain tolerance.
  • Patient education and programs that encourage coping skills are an important part of any treatment plan.

A combination of non-drug therapies appears to work just as well as drug therapy in improving pain, depression, and disability. This combination includes exercise, stress management, massage, and diet.

Preparation for Treatment

Patients must have realistic expectations about the long-term outlook of their condition, and their own individual abilities. It is important to understand that fibromyalgia can be managed, and patients can live a full life. The following tips may be helpful when starting a treatment program for fibromyalgia:

  • The goal of therapy is to relieve symptoms, not cure them.
  • Treatment must be tailored to each patient, and a combination approach is often needed.
  • Patients must begin all treatments with the attitude that these treatments are trial-and-error. There is no clear treatment solution. Patients and doctors need to work together to make the best choices for individual symptoms and concerns.
  • Treatments are long-lasting, in some cases life-long, and patients should not be discouraged by the return of symptoms (relapses).
  • Enlisting family members, partners, and close friends, particularly to help with exercise and stretching programs, can be helpful.
  • Becoming involved with support groups also benefits many patients. Support groups may also help family members, particularly parents of children with fibromyalgia. One study noted that the severity of the disorder increased in children whose parents were less able to cope with their pain.

The definition of improvement is personal. For example, some patients are pleased with only a 10% reduction in pain and other symptoms.

Lifestyle Changes

Many studies have shown that exercise is the most effective component in managing fibromyalgia, and patients must expect to take part in a long-term exercise program. Physical activity prevents muscle wasting, increases well-being, and, over time, reduces fatigue and pain. Many studies have also demonstrated that exercise can improve physical and emotional function, as well as reduce symptoms, including pain.

Programs often combine aerobic, strength-training, and flexibility exercises with self-management education. Some studies have shown improvements lasting for up to 9 months after the exercise program ends.

Graded Exercise. The basic approach used for fibromyalgia is called graded exercise. Graded exercise means you slowly increase the amount of your physical activity.

In general, graded exercise involves:

  • A very gradual program of activity, beginning with mild exercise and building in intensity over time.
  • Stretching exercises before working out. A daily stretching routine can help relax tense muscles and prevent soreness.
  • Walking, swimming, and using equipment such as treadmills or stationary bikes. Swimming and water therapy are good because they don't require putting weight on the joints.

Patients who try difficult exercises too early actually experience an increase in pain, and are likely to become discouraged and quit.

Every patient must be prepared for relapses and setbacks, but they should not get discouraged. Patients who do not respond to one type of exercise might consider experimenting with another form.

Physical therapy can be very helpful. Studies suggest that physical therapy may reduce muscle overload, lessen fatigue from poor posture and positioning, and help condition weak muscles.

Establishing Regular Sleep Routines

Sleep is essential, particularly because sleep disruptions worsen pain. Many patients with fibromyalgia have trouble getting a restful and healing night's sleep. Those who are unable to sleep consistently have little improvement in symptoms. Swing shift work, for example, is extremely hard on fibromyalgia patients. Poor sleep habits can add to sleep problems. Tips for good sleep habits include:

  • Avoid caffeine or alcohol 4 - 6 hours before bedtime.
  • Avoid drinking fluids right before bedtime so that you do not have to wake up to urinate.
  • Avoid exercising 6 hours before bedtime.
  • Avoid large meals before bedtime. A light snack, however, may help you sleep.
  • Avoid naps, especially in the evening or late afternoon.
  • Establish a regular time for going to bed and getting up in the morning. Maintain this schedule even on weekends and during vacations.
  • If you are unable to fall asleep after 15 or 20 minutes, go into another room and start a quiet activity. Return to bed when you feel sleepy.
  • Minimize light and maintain a comfortable, moderate temperature in the bedroom. Keep the bedroom well ventilated.
  • Use the bed only for sleep and sexual relations.

[For more information see In-Depth Report #27: Insomnia.]

Diet

Fibromyalgia patients should maintain a healthy diet low in animal fat and high in fiber, with plenty of whole grains, fresh fruits, and vegetables. Although everyone should be careful about calories from fats, some are healthy.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids. Oils containing omega-3 fatty acids are of particular interest for arthritic pain. Such oils are found in cold-water fish. You can also purchase these oils as supplements called EPA-DHA or omega 3.

Omega-3 fatty acids
Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body gets from food. Omega-3s are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they cannot be produced by the body. These healthy fatty acids can be found in certain fish, canola oil, flax seeds, and walnuts. Omega-3 fatty acids have anti-inflammatory properties, which help prevent blood clots, lower cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and reduce blood pressure. Omega-3s may also reduce the risks and symptoms of diabetes, stroke, rheumatoid arthritis, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis, some cancers, and mental decline.

Vegetarian or Vegan Diet. A vegan diet has no meat, dairy, or eggs and includes uncooked fruits, vegetables, nuts, and germinated seeds. The actual benefit of various vegetarian diets remains unproven.

Stress Reduction Techniques

Relaxation and stress-reduction techniques are proving to be helpful in managing chronic pain. Evidence shows that people with fibromyalgia have a more stressful response to daily conflicts and encounters than those without the disorder. Several relaxation and stress-reduction techniques may be helpful in managing chronic pain, including:

  • Biofeedback
  • Deep breathing exercises
  • Hypnosis
  • Massage therapy
  • Meditation
  • Muscle relaxation techniques

Biofeedback. Evidence from controlled trials does not suggest that biofeedback techniques are very helpful for fibromyalgia patients. During a biofeedback session, electric leads are taped to a subject's head. The person is encouraged to relax using any method that works. Brain waves are measured and an audio signal sounds when alpha waves are detected. Alpha waves are brain waves that occur with a state of deep relaxation. By repeating the process, people using biofeedback connect the sound with the relaxed state, and learn to relax on their own.

Meditation. Meditation, used for many years in Eastern cultures, is now widely accepted in this country as an effective relaxation technique. A number of studies are reporting its benefits for fibromyalgia patients who practice on a continued and regular basis. The practiced meditator can achieve the following physical benefits:

  • Reduced heart rate, blood pressure, adrenaline levels, and skin temperature while meditating.
  • Improved well-being.
  • Better sleep -- some research has reported an increase in melatonin levels in experienced meditators. Melatonin is important in regulating the sleep-wake cycle.
  • Less pain, possibly from reductions in levels of cortisol, a stress hormone.

An important goal for both religious and therapeutic meditation practices is to quiet the mind -- essentially to relax thought. This redirection of brain activity from thoughts and worries to the senses disrupts the stress response and prompts relaxation and renewed energy.

People who try meditation for the first time should understand that it can be difficult to quiet the mind, and they should not be discouraged by a lack of immediate results. Some experts recommend meditating for no longer than 20 minutes in the morning after awakening and then again in the early evening before dinner. Even once a day is helpful. Do not meditate before going to bed, because it causes some people to wake up in the middle of the night, alert and unable to return to sleep.

Hypnosis. In one small, short-term controlled study, hypnosis was more effective than physical therapy in improving function and reducing pain.

Massage Therapy. Massage therapy is thought to stimulate the parasympathetic nervous system, which slows the heart and relaxes the body. In one study, patients who were given 30-minute massage sessions twice a week experienced lower stress and anxiety and less pain after 5 weeks compared to a group receiving an alternative therapy called transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TENS).

Alternative Treatments

Because of the difficulties in treating fibromyalgia, many patients seek alternative therapies. Although some studies have reported a benefit from these treatments, there is not enough evidence to recommend them. In one analysis, evidence was weakest on the advantages of so-called manipulative ("hands-on") approaches, such as chiropractic treatments.

Acupuncture. Studies continue to report conflicting results on acupuncture's ability to relieve pain. Several small studies suggest that it offers some benefit, especially to people who cannot take medicines because of their side effects. Acupuncture also seems to help relieve pain when added to treatment with tricyclic antidepressants and exercise, and the improvements last for a few months after treatment ends. Other studies have not found enough evidence to support the use of acupuncture for fibromyalgia.

Acupuncture

Click the icon to see an image of acupuncture.

Chiropractic or Osteopathic Manipulation. Chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation may also help some patients. While some studies have reported pain relief and improved sleep with osteopathic manipulation, larger controlled studies are needed to clearly identify whether manipulation is an effective treatment. Osteopathic techniques may include manipulation of the spine or muscle tissue release. There is always a very small risk for adverse effects from any of these techniques. For example, in rare cases manipulation of the neck has caused stroke or damage to the large blood vessels in the neck.

Hydrotherapy and Similar Treatments. Hydrotherapy, also called balneotherapy, involves soaking in water, such as hot tubs, pools, or baths, to help relieve pain. One study found that exercising in a warm swimming pool was a cost-effective therapy that improves quality of life in women with fibromyalgia.

Warmth itself might provide some relief. According to another small study, Waon therapy -- a type of treatment in which patients first sit in a dry sauna and then are placed in a warm room and wrapped in blankets -- significantly reduced pain in fibromyalgia patients.

Herbal or Natural Remedies. Some alternative remedies are being investigated for fibromyalgia:

  • Melatonin, a natural hormone associated with the sleep-wake cycle, may have benefits for some patients with fibromyalgia, but trials studying so far it have not been well designed.
  • S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe) is a natural substance that has antidepressant, anti-inflammatory, and analgesic properties. It has shown some benefit in controlled studies.

It is extremely important for patients to realize that any herbal remedy or natural medicine that has positive effects most likely has negative side effects and toxic reactions, just as any conventional drug does. Consult a doctor before using any untested products or dietary supplements. Also discuss with your doctor the potential interactions between the supplements and any medications you take.

Herbs and Supplements

Generally, manufacturers of herbal remedies and dietary supplements do not need approval from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to sell their products. Just like a drug, herbs and supplements can affect the body's chemistry, and therefore have the potential to produce side effects that may be harmful. There have been a number of reported cases of serious and even deadly side effects from herbal products. Always check with your doctor before using any herbal remedies or dietary supplements.

Behavioral Therapy

Studies show that fibromyalgia patients feel better when they deal with the consequences of their disorder on their lives. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) enhances a patient's belief in their own abilities and helps them develop methods for dealing with stressful situations. CBT, also called cognitive therapy, is known to be an effective method for dealing with chronic pain from arthritic conditions. Evidence also suggests that cognitive-behavioral therapy can help some patients with fibromyalgia.

Although the effects of CBT and other non-medication treatments for fibromyalgia do not always last over the long-term, they may help certain groups of people, particularly those with a high level of psychological stress.

CBT may be particularly useful for addressing insomnia, one of the hallmark symptoms of fibromyalgia. In studies, patients who received CBT for insomnia woke up 50% less often at night, and had fewer symptoms of insomnia and improved mood.

The Goals of CBT. The primary goals of CBT are to change any unclear or mistaken ideas and self-defeating behaviors. Using specific tasks and self-observation, patients learn to think of pain as something other than a negative factor that controls their life. Over time, the idea that they are helpless goes away and they learn that they can manage the pain.

Cognitive therapy is particularly helpful for defining and setting limits, which is extremely important for these patients. Many fibromyalgia patients live their lives in extremes. They first become heroes or martyrs, pushing themselves too far until they collapse. This collapse reverses the way they view themselves, and they then think of themselves as complete failures, unable to cope with the simplest task. One important aim of cognitive therapy is to help such patients discover a middle route. Patients learn to prioritize their responsibilities and drop some of the less important tasks or delegate them to others. Learning these coping skills can eventually lead to a more manageable life. Patients learn to view themselves and others with a more flexible attitude.

The Procedure. Cognitive therapy usually does not last long. It typically consists of 6 - 20 one-hour sessions. Patients also receive homework, which usually includes keeping a diary and trying tasks they have avoided in the past because of negative attitudes.

A typical cognitive therapy program may involve the following measures:

  • Keep a Diary. Patients are usually asked to keep a diary, a key part of cognitive therapy. The diary serves as a general guide for setting limits and planning activities. Patients use the diary to track any stress factors, such as a job or a relationship that may be improving or worsening the pain.
  • Confront Negative or Discouraging Thoughts. Patients are taught to challenge and reverse negative beliefs. For example, "I'm not good enough to control this disease, so I'm a total failure" becomes the coping statement, "Where is the evidence that I can control this disease?"
  • Set Limits. Limits are designed to keep both mental and physical stress within manageable levels, so that patients do not become discouraged by getting in over their heads. For example, tasks are broken down into incremental steps, and patients focus on one step at a time.
  • Seek out Pleasurable Activities. Patients list a number of enjoyable low-energy activities that they can conveniently schedule.
  • Prioritize. Patients learn to drop some of the less critical tasks or delegate them to others.

Patients should learn to accept that relapses occur, and that over-coping and accomplishing too much too soon can often cause a relapse. Patients should respect these relapses and back off. They should not consider them a sign of failure.

Research also shows that patient education can be effective in treating fibromyalgia, especially when combined with CBT, exercise, and other therapies. Educational programs can take the form of group discussions, lectures, or printed materials, although there isn't any clear evidence on which type of education works best.

Support Organizations and Group Therapy

Cognitive therapy may be expensive and not covered by insurance. Other effective approaches that are free or less costly include support groups or group psychotherapy. In one study, educational discussion groups were as effective, or even more so, than a cognitive therapy program. Such results are not typical in all centers. Therapeutic success varies widely depending on the skill of the therapist.

Medications

In 2007 the Food and Drug Administration approved Pregabalin (Lyrica) as the first drug specifically for the treatment of fibromyalgia. Other drugs used to treat fibromyalgia are antidepressants or muscle relaxants. The goal has been to improve sleep and pain tolerance. Medications from other drug classes (such as sleeping aids and pain relievers) may also be prescribed. Patients receive drug treatments in combination with exercise, patient education, and behavioral therapies.

Anti-Seizure Agents (Anti-Convulsants)

Pregabalin is an anti-epileptic. Also called anti-seizure drugs and anti-convulsants, these medicines affect the chemical messenger gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), which helps prevent nerve cells from over-firing.

Pregabalin was approved in 2004 to treat nerve pain and diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Research is indicating it may improve sleep quality, fatigue symptoms, and fibromyalgia pain. One study found that three different doses of pregabalin -- 300 mg, 450 mg, and 600 mg -- were all effective at improving pain and sleep, and all were well tolerated by patients. The most common side effects include mild-to-moderate dizziness and sleepiness. Pregabalin can impair motor function and cause problems with concentration and attention. Patients should talk to their doctor about whether pregabalin may affect their ability to drive.

Studies have shown that another anti-convulsant, gabapentin (Neurontin), which is approved for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia, affects pain transmission pathways and may relieve pain associated with fibromyalgia. Patients who took gabapentin also reported that they slept better and were less tired.

Antidepressants

The main classes of antidepressants used for treating fibromyalgia are tricyclics, selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs). Although these drugs are antidepressants, doctors prescribe them to improve sleep and relieve pain in non-depressed patients with fibromyalgia. The dosages used for managing fibromyalgia are generally lower than dosages prescribed for treating depression. If a patient has depression in addition to fibromyalgia, higher doses may be required.

Tricyclics. Tricyclic antidepressants were the first drugs to be well-studied for fibromyalgia. They cause drowsiness and can be helpful for improving sleep. The tricyclic drug most commonly used for fibromyalgia is amitriptyline (Elavil, Endep), which produces modest benefits with pain, but can lose effectiveness over time. Other tricyclics include desipramine (Norpramin), doxepin (Sinequan), imipramine (Tofranil), amoxapine (Asendin), and nortriptyline (Pamelor, Aventyl).

Generally, only small doses of tricyclic antidepressants are needed to relieve fibromyalgia. Therefore, although tricyclics have several side effects, these side effects may be less frequent in fibromyalgia patients than in those taking tricyclics for depression. Side effects most often reported include:

  • Blurred vision
  • Difficulty urinating
  • Dizziness
  • Drowsiness
  • Dry mouth
  • Heart rhythm disturbances
  • Sexual dysfunction
  • Weight gain

As with all medications, tricyclic antidepressants must be taken as directed. An overdose can be life-threatening.

Unfortunately, not all patients respond to tricyclics, and their effects wear off in some patients, sometimes after only a month.

Selective Serotonin-Reuptake Inhibitors. Selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase serotonin levels in the brain, which may have specific benefits for fibromyalgia patients. Commonly prescribed SSRIs include fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), and fluvoxamine (Luvox). Studies suggest they may improve sleep, fatigue, and well-being in many patients. Studies are mixed on whether they improve pain. SSRIs should be taken in the morning, since they may cause insomnia. Common side effects are agitation, nausea, and sexual dysfunction, including a delay or loss of orgasm and low sex drive.

Serotonin-Norepinephrine Reuptake Inhibitors. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) are also known as dual inhibitors because they act directly on two chemical messengers in the brain -- norepinephrine and serotonin. These drugs appear to have more consistent benefits for fibromyalgia pain than SSRIs.

SNRIs include:

  • Duloxetine (Cymbalta) has been approved by the FDA for treating fibromyalgia. In studies, it reduced fibromyalgia pain by more than 30%. The most common side effects with this medication are nausea, dry mouth, constipation, decreased appetite, sleepiness, increased sweating, and agitation. It may also increase the risk of hemorrhage in patients taking NSAIDs, aspirin, or blood thinners.
  • Venlafaxine (Effexor) is similar to fluoxetine (Prozac) in effectiveness and tolerability for most patients. As with SSRIs, and unlike other newer antidepressants, venlafaxine impairs sexual function. Although clinical trials have shown that the drug is safe and effective in most people, there have been reports of changes in blood pressure. There have also been reports of problems with the electrical system of the heart in people taking this drug. These side effects may cause serious problems in elderly patients. Some patients report severe withdrawal symptoms, including dizziness and nausea.
  • Milnacipran (Ixel) is under investigation and is not yet approved in the United States. It is specifically being researched for helping people with fibromyalgia and similar pain syndromes. Milnacipran appears to improve fibromyalgia pain and other symptoms, including fatigue, poor sleep, and depression.

Muscle Relaxants

Cyclobenzaprine (Flexeril) relaxes muscle spasms in specific locations without affecting overall muscle function. It helps relieve fibromyalgia symptoms. Cyclobenzaprine is related to the tricyclic antidepressants and has similar side effects, including drowsiness, dry mouth, and dizziness.

Sleep Medications

Zolpidem (Ambien) or other newer sleep medications such as zaleplon (Sonata) and eszopiclone (Lunesta) may improve sleep in patients with insomnia.

Pain Relievers

Pain relief is of major concern for patients with fibromyalgia. Pain relievers for fibromyalgia include:

  • Tramadol (Ultram), used alone or in combination with acetaminophen (Tylenol), is commonly prescribed for relief of fibromyalgia pain. Its most common side effects are drowsiness, dizziness, constipation, and nausea. Tramadol should not be used in combination with tricyclic antidepressants.
  • For relief of mild pain, acetaminophen is most often recommended. Anti-inflammatory drugs, which are commonly used for arthritic conditions, are less useful for the pain of fibromyalgia, because the pain is not caused by muscle or joint inflammation. Anti-inflammatory drugs include corticosteroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin and ibuprofen (Advil).
  • Capsaicin (Zostrix) is an ointment prepared from the active ingredient in hot chili peppers. Capsaicin is helpful for relieving painful areas in other disorders. It may also have some value for fibromyalgia patients.
  • Opioids, or narcotics, may be used occasionally by certain patients with moderate-to-severe pain, or those with significant problems performing everyday tasks. Such patients should use narcotics only if they cannot find relief with other, less potent treatments. Patients may get combinations of narcotic pain relievers and acetaminophen for periodic pain. Some physicians prescribe opioids, such as oxycodone (Roxicodone) or morphine sulfate (Duramorph), for patients who need ongoing relief. However, the benefit of opioids in fibromyalgia treatment is highly controversial. Physicians should take a careful medical and psychological profile of the patient before prescribing opioids, and then should evaluate those patients periodically for continuing pain relief, side effects, and signs of dependence.
  • Pramipexole, a drug used to treat Parkinson's disease and restless legs syndrome, may help relieve pain and fatigue in people with fibromyalgia. Pramipexole stimulates the production of dopamine, a chemical messenger in the brain.
  • The atypical antipsychotic drug olanzapine (Zyprexa) may be a beneficial add-on therapy for patients with fibromyalgia. Although proven effective for some chronic pain conditions, olanzapine and other antipsychotics cause unpleasant and potentially serious side effects.

Other Investigative Drugs

Tropisetron. Tropisetron (Navoban) is a drug used to reduce vomiting during chemotherapy. European studies suggest that it may also help patients with fibromyalgia by reducing pain, dizziness, and depression, and by improving sleep. Fatigue and dizziness are the most common side effects.

Nabilone. A synthetic drug derived from marijuana may be another effective addition to fibromyalgia treatment, according to early studies. In one study, nabilone (Cesamet), which is also used to treat severe nausea and vomiting in chemotherapy patients, significantly relieved fibromyalgia pain compared to placebo. There are some challenges to using nabilone for fibromyalgia, however. First, it is a controlled substance that can become addictive, and researchers say it is so expensive that it would be cost-prohibitive to use for a chronic disease such as fibromyalgia.

Resources

References

Abeles M, Solitar BM, Pillinger MH, Abeles AM. Update on fibromyalgia therapy. Am J Med. 2008;121:555-561.

Arnold LM, Goldenberg DL, Stanford SB, Lalonde JK, Sandhu HS, Keck PE, et al. Gabapentin in the treatment of fibromyalgia: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled multicenter trial. Arthritis & Rheumatism. 2007;56:1336-1344.

Geisser ME, Glass JM, Rajcevska LD, Clauw DJ, Williams DA, Kileny PR. A psychophysical study of auditory and pressure sensitivity in patients with fibromyalgia and healthy controls. J Pain. 2008;9:417-422.

Guedj E, Cammilleri S, Niboyet J, Dupont P, Vidal E, Dropinski JP, Mundler O. Clinical correlate of brain SPECT perfusion abnormalities in fibromyalgia. J Nucl Med. 2008;49:1798-1803.

Gusi N, Tomas-Carus P. Cost-utility of an 8-month aquatic training for women with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial. Arthritis Res Ther. 2008;10:R24.

Harris RE, Clauw DJ, Scott DJ, McLean SA, Gracely RH, Zubieta JK. Decreased central u-opioid receptor availability in fibromyalgia. J Neurosci. 2007;27:10000-10006.

Lawrence RC, Felson DT, Helmick CG, Arnold LM, Choi H, Deyo RA, et al. Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and other rheumatic conditions in the United States. Part II. Arthritis Rheum. 2008;58:26-35.

Mannerkorpi K, Henriksson C. Non-pharmacological treatment of chronic widespread musculoskeletal pain. Best Pract Res Clin Rheumatol. 2007;21:513-534.

Matsushita K, Masuda A, Tei C. Efficacy of Waon therapy for fibromyalgia. Intern Med. 2008;47:1473-1476.

McCabe CS, Cohen H, Blake DR. Somaesthetic disturbances in fibromyalgia are exaggerated by sensory-motor conflict: implications for chronicity of the disease? Rheumatology. 2007;46:1587-1592.

Rooks DS, Gautam S, Romeling M, Cross ML, Stratigakis D, Evans B, et al. Group exercise, education, and combination self-management in women with fibromyalgia. Arch Intern Med. 2007;167;2192-2200.

Schweinhardt P. Fibromyalgia: a disorder of the brain? Neuroscientist. 2008;14:415-421.

Targino RA, Imamura M, Kaziyama HH, Souza LP, Hsing WT, Furlan AD, et al. A randomized controlled trial of acupuncture added to usual treatment for fibromyalgia. J Rehabil Med. 2008;40:582-588.

Van Koulil S, Effting M, Kraaimaat FW, van Lankveld W, van Helmond T, Cats H, et al. Cognitive-behavioural therapies and exercise programmes for patients with fibromyalgia; state of the art and future directions. Ann Rheum Dis. 2007;66:571-581.

Verbunt JA, Pernot DH, Smeets RJ. Disability and quality of life in patients with fibromyalgia. Health Qual Life Outcomes. 2008;6:8.


Review Date: 12/29/2008
Reviewed By: Harvey Simon, MD, Editor-in-Chief, Associate Professor of Medicine, Harvard Medical School; Physician, Massachusetts General Hospital. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, A.D.A.M., Inc.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
adam.com

©2014 About.com. All rights reserved.