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Prostatic acid phosphatase (PAP)

Definition

The PAP test is a blood test that measures prostatic acid phosphatase (an enzyme found in men, primarilyin the prostate gland and semen) to determine the health of the prostate gland. Prostate dysfunction results in the release of PAP into the blood.

Alternative Names

Prostatic acid phosphatase test; Serum acid phosphatase; Male PAP test

How the Test is Performed

Blood is drawn from a vein, usually from the inside of the elbow or the back of the hand. The puncture site is cleaned with antiseptic, and an elastic band or blood pressure cuff is placed around the upper arm. This causes veins below the band to swell with blood.

A needle is inserted into the vein, and the blood is collected in an air-tight vial or a syringe. During the procedure, the band is removed to restore circulation. Once the blood has been collected, the needle is removed, and the puncture site is covered to stop any bleeding.

How to Prepare for the Test

This test usually does not require special preparation. As with any blood test, the health care provider may limit certain foods or medications shortly before the test to assure an accurate sample.

Drugs that can interfere with PAP measurements include fluorides, oxalates, clofibrate, and alcohol

How the Test Will Feel

When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain, while others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing in the area.

Why the Test is Performed

This test is most often performed to determine whether you have prostate cancer, an abnormality of the prostate gland, or to follow the response of prostate cancer to treatment.

This test is no longer used routinely. The availability of the more sensitive and specific PSA assay has largely replaced the PAP test's clinical use.

Normal Results

Normal values vary from laboratory to laboratory. Please contact your laboratory or consult your health care provider for normal values.

What Abnormal Results Mean

Abnormal PAP values can be obtained for many reasons. The most common reasons for abnormal PAP values include, but are not limited to:

Risks

  • Excessive bleeding
  • Fainting or feeling lightheaded
  • Hematoma (blood accumulating under the skin)
  • Infection (a slight risk any time the skin is broken)
  • Multiple punctures to locate veins

Considerations

Prostate cancer that is located only in the prostate gland may not produce high enough levels to indicate a problem. If your PAP test is normal it does not eliminate the possibility that you have prostate cancer.

Veins and arteries vary in size from one patient to another and from one side of the body to the other. Obtaining a blood sample from some people may be more difficult than from others.


Review Date: 6/6/2005
Reviewed By: David R. Knowles, M.D., Scottsdale Urologic Surgeons, Scottsdale, AZ. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network.
The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed medical professional should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only -- they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. 1997- A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited.
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