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Diabetes

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Alternative Names:
Diabetes mellitus
Symptoms:

High blood levels of glucose can cause several problems, including frequent urination, excessive thirst, hunger, fatigue, weight loss, and blurry vision. However, because type 2 diabetes develops slowly, some people with high blood sugar experience no symptoms at all.

Symptoms of type 1 diabetes:

Symptoms of type 2 diabetes:

Signs and tests:
A urine analysis may be used to look for glucose and ketones from the breakdown of fat. However, a urine test alone does not diagnose diabetes. The following blood glucose tests are used to diagnose diabetes:
  • Fasting blood glucose level -- diabetes is diagnosed if higher than 126 mg/dL on two occasions.
  • Random (non-fasting) blood glucose level -- diabetes is suspected if higher than 200 mg/dL and accompanied by the classic symptoms of increased thirst, urination, and fatigue. (This test must be confirmed with a fasting blood glucose test.)
  • Oral glucose tolerance test -- diabetes is diagnosed if glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours (This test is used more for type 2 diabetes.)

Patients with type 1 diabetes usually develop symptoms over a short period of time, and the condition is often diagnosed in an emergency setting. In addition to having high glucose levels, acutely ill type 1 diabetics have high levels of ketones.

Ketones are produced by the breakdown of fat and muscle, and they are toxic at high levels. Ketones in the blood cause a condition called "acidosis" (low blood pH). Urine testing detects both glucose and ketones in the urine. Blood glucose levels are also high.

Endocrine glands
Endocrine glands
Diabetic retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy
Islets of Langerhans
Islets of Langerhans
Blood test
Blood test
Pancreas
Pancreas
Insulin pump
Insulin pump
Glucose test
Glucose test
Insulin pump
Insulin pump
Type I diabetes
Type I diabetes
Diabetic blood circulation in foot
Diabetic blood circulation in foot
Food and insulin release
Food and insulin release
Insulin production and diabetes
Insulin production and diabetes
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